focus-on-information-architecture

Posted on April 27, 2019 Posted by

focus-on-information-architecture

Guideline 2.4: Focus on Information Architecture


Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are

Finding the content and keeping track of our location are usually difficult tasks for people with disabilities, especially for those who use screen reader or cognitive disabilities. So these criteria are made for them.

Best practices

  • Limit the number of links per page
  • Provide mechanisms to navigate to different sections of the content of a Web page
  • Make links visually distinct

2.4.1 Bypass Blocks Level A

A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages.

Compulsory

Create links to skip blocks of repeated material

Choose one of these possibilities:

  • Add a link at the top of each page that goes directly to the main content area
  • Add a link at the beginning of a block of repeated content to go to the end of the block
  • Add links at the top of the page to each area of the content
Group blocks of repeated material in a way that can be skipped

Choose one of these possibilities:

  • Provide heading elements at the beginning of each section of content
  • Uee structural elements to group links
  • Use frame elements to group blocks of repeated material and the title attribute of the frame and iframe elements
  • Use an expandable and collapsible menu to bypass block of content

Recommended

  • Provide keyboard access to important links and form controls
  • Provide skip links to enhance page navigation
  • Provide access keys
  • Use accessibility supported technologies which allow structured navigation by user agents and assistive technologies
  • Position content based on structural markup

2.4.2 Page Titled Level A

Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose

Compulsory

  • Provide descriptive titles for Web pages and provide a title to each web page

Recommended

  • Identify a Web page’s relationship to a larger collection of Web pages
  • Use a technology-specific technique
  • Identify the subject of the Web page
  • Use ARIA described by property to provide a descriptive, programmatically determined label
  • Provide a meaningful name for
  • Identify frames
  • Use unique titles for Web pages
  • Provide a descriptive top-level page heading

Failures

  • The title of the Web page don’t identify the contents like “Untitled Document” or similar;
  • Using he same title for different pages

2.4.3 Focus Order Level A

If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability.

Compulsory

  • Place the interactive elements in an order that follows sequences and relationships within the content
  • Give focus to elements in an order that follows sequences and relationships within the content. Choose one of these possibilities:
    • Create a logical tab order through links, form controls, and objects
    • Make the DOM order match the visual order
  • Change a Web page dynamically
    • Insert dynamic content into the Document Object Model immediately following its trigger element
    • Create Custom Dialogs in a Device Independent Way
    • Reorder page sections Use the Document Object Model

Recommended

  • Provide a highly visible highlighting mechanism for links or controls when they receive keyboard focus
  • Create alternative presentation orders

Failures

  • Using tabindex to create a tab order that does not preserve meaning and operability
  • Using dialogs or menus that are not adjacent to their trigger control in the sequential navigation order

2.4.4 Link Purpose (in context) Level A

The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.

Compulsory

  • Provide link text that describes the purpose of a link, a link for anchor elements or area elements of image maps
  • Allow the user to choose short or long link text by a control near the beginning of the Web page that changes the link text or changing the link text by scripting
  • Identify the purpose of a link using link text combined with the text of the enclosing sentence
  • Provide a supplemental description of the purpose of a link with the title or hiding a portion of the link text by css.
  • Identify the purpose of a link using link text combined with programmatically determined link context. Choose one of these options:
    • Enclosing list item
    • Enclosing paragraph
    • Enclosing table cell and associated table headings
    • Preceding heading element
    • In a nested list, link text combined with the parent list item under which the list is nested

Recommended

  • Combining adjacent image and text links for the same resource
  • Use ARIA described by property to provide a descriptive, programmatically determined label

Failures

  • Providing link context only in content that is not related to the link
  • Using null alt on an image where the image is the only content in a link

2.4.5 Multiple Ways Level AA

More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process

Compulsory

Use 2 or more of these techniques

  • Provide links to navigate to related Web pages
  • Provide a Table of Contents
  • Provide a site map
  • Provide a search function to help users find content
  • Provide a list of links to all other Web pages
  • Linking to all of the pages on the site from the home page

Recommended

  • Use the link element and navigation tools
  • Include information about presentation modes in tables of contents and concept maps

2.4.6 Headings and Labels Level AA

Headings and labels describe topic or purpose

Compulsory

  • Provide descriptive headings
  • Provide descriptive labels

Recommended

  • Use unique section headings in a Web Page
  • Start section headings with unique information

2.4.7 Focus Visible Level AA

Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible.

Compulsory

  • Use user interface components that are highlighted by the user agent when they receive focus
  • Use CSS to change the presentation of a user interface component when it receives focus
  • Use the default focus indicator for the platform so that high visibility default focus indicators will carry over
  • Use an author-supplied, highly visible focus indicator
  • Use script to change the background color or border of the element with focus (Scripting)

Recommended

  • Highlight a link or control when the mouse hovers over it
  • Provide a highly visible highlighting mechanism for links or controls when they receive keyboard focus

Failures

  • using script to remove focus when focus is received
  • Styling element outlines and borders in a way that removes or renders non-visible the visual focus indicator

2.4.8 Location Level AAA

Information about the user’s location within a set of Web pages is available.

Compulsory

  • Provide a breadcrumb trail.
  • Provide a site map.
  • Indicate current location within navigation bars
  • Identify a Web page’s relationship to a larger collection of Web pages with the link element and navigation tools

Recommended

  • Provide a link to the home page or main page
  • Provide an easy-to-read version of information about the organization of a set of Web pages
  • Provide a sign language version of information about the organization of a set of Web pages
  • Provide an easy-to-read summary at the beginning of each section of content

2.4.9 Link Purpose (only the link) Level AAA

A mechanism is available to allow the purpose of each link to be identified from link text alone, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.

Compulsory

  • Provide link text that describes the purpose of a link for anchor elements or text alternatives for the area elements of image maps
  • Allow the user to choose short or long link text by a control near the beginning of the Web page that changes the link text or using scripts to change the link text
  • Provide a supplemental description of the purpose of a link hiding a portion of the link text with CSS

Recommended

  • Combine adjacent image and text links for the same resource
  • Support link text with the title attribute

Failures

  • Using a non-specific link such as “click here” or “more” without a mechanism to change the link text to specific text.
  • Using null alt on an image where the image is the only content in a link

2.4.10 Section Headings Level AAA

Section headings are used to organize the content.
“Heading” is used in its general sense and includes titles and other ways to add a heading to different types of content.
This success criterion covers sections within writing, not user interface components. User Interface components are covered under Success Criterion 4.1.2.

Compulsory

  • Organize a page using headings

Recommended

  • Use the ‘live’ property to mark live regions
  • Provide mechanisms to navigate to different sections of the content of a Web page

More info


focus-on-information-architecture

Posted on April 27, 2019 Posted by Victoria Brooks

guideline-2-3-be-careful-with-flashing-visual-content

Guideline 2.3: Be careful with flashing visual content


Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.

Three-flash-in-a-second is the lower rate recommended to show flash content for people who suffer from seizures due to photosensitivity, specially for red lights. But still there are more sensitive people that react to lower rates, so the recommendation is to eliminate this type of visual content.
What is the difference between “blinking” and “fashing”?

blinking
content that distracts, and can be used for a short time as long as it stops or can be stopped by the user. If blinking occurs faster than 3 per second, it should be considered a flash.
flashing
content faster than 3 per second, and large and bright enough to cause a seizure The chance to turn the flash off is not an option since the seizure could occur faster than most users could turn it off.

How do you know if your content is flashing or blinking? Try the Photosensitive Epilepsy Analysis Tool.

In order to not interfere with other content of the webpage, these criteria applies for the whole page.

2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold Level A

Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds.

Compulsory

  • Ensure that no component of the content flashes more than three times in any 1-second period
  • Keep the flashing area small enough
  • Use a tool to ensure that content does not violate the general flash threshold or red flash threshold

Recommended

  • Reduce contrast for any flashing content
  • Avoid fully saturated reds for any flashing content
  • Reduce the number of flashes even if they do not violate thresholds
  • Provide a mechanism to suppress any flashing content before it begins
  • Slow down live material to avoid rapid flashes (as in flashbulbs)
  • Freeze the image momentarily if 3 flashes within one second are detected
  • Drop the contrast ratio if 3 flashes within one second are detected

2.3.2 Three Flashes Level AAA

Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period

Compulsory

  • Ensure that no component of the content flashes more than three times in any 1-second period

Recommended

They are the same techniques as 2.3.1

More info


guideline-2-3-be-careful-with-flashing-visual-content

Posted on April 27, 2019 Posted by Victoria Brooks

dont-hurry-up-anyone

Guideline 2.2: Don’t hurry up anyone


Provide users enough time to read and use content.

Imagine you are reading a webpage and, in the middle of that proccess, the page reloads and changes, so you can not finish the reading of the formerly page. Everybody needs different time to complete tasks, and this time is usually higher on the elderly and users with disabilities.

So this guideline is about eliminating time constraints or providing users enough additional time to allow them to complete their tasks.

2.2.1 Timing Adjustable Level A

For each time limit that is set by the content, at least one of the following is true:

  • Turn off: The user is allowed to turn off the time limit before encountering it;
  • Adjust: The user is allowed to adjust the time limit before encountering it over a wide range that is at least ten times the length of the default setting;
  • Extend: The user is warned before time expires and given at least 20 seconds to extend the time limit with a simple action (for example, “press the space bar”), and the user is allowed to extend the time limit at least ten times;
  • Real-time Exception: The time limit is a required part of a real-time event (for example, an auction), and no alternative to the time limit is possible;
  • Essential Exception: The time limit is essential and extending it would invalidate the activity;
  • 20 Hour Exception: The time limit is longer than 20 hours.

This success criterion helps ensure that users can complete tasks without unexpected changes in content or context that are a result of a time limit. This success criterion should be considered in conjunction with Success Criterion 3.2.1, which puts limits on changes of content or context as a result of user action.

Compulsory

If there are session time limits:
  • Provide a checkbox on the first page of a multipart form that allows users to ask for longer session time limit or no session time limit
  • Provide a way for the user to turn the time limit off
If a time limit is controlled by a script on the page:
  • Provide a way for the user to turn the time limit off
  • Provide a means to set the time limit to 10 times the default time limit
  • Providing a script that warns the user a time limit is about to expire AND allow the user to extend the default time limit
If there are time limits on reading:
  • Allow the content to be paused and restarted from where it was paused
  • Provide a way for the user to turn the time limit off
  • Use script to scroll content, and provide a mechanism to pause it
  • Provide a mechanism to allow users to display moving, scrolling, or auto-updating text in a static window or area

Recommended

  • Use a script to poll the server and notify a user if a time limit is present

Failures

  • Using meta redirect with a time limit
  • Using meta refresh with a time-out
  • Using server-side techniques to automatically redirect pages after a time-out
  • Including scrolling content where movement is not essential to the activity without also including a mechanism to pause and restart the content

2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide Level A

For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, all of the following are true:

  • Moving, blinking, scrolling: For any moving, blinking or scrolling information that (1) starts automatically, (2) lasts more than five seconds, and (3) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it unless the movement, blinking, or scrolling is part of an activity where it is essential; and
  • Auto-updating: For any auto-updating information that (1) starts automatically and (2) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it or to control the frequency of the update unless the auto-updating is part of an activity where it is essential.

Notes:

  1. For requirements related to flickering or flashing content, refer to Guideline 2.3.
  2. Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user’s ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion.
  3. Content that is updated periodically by software or that is streamed to the user agent is not required to preserve or present information that is generated or received between the initiation of the pause and resuming presentation, as this may not be technically possible, and in many situations could be misleading to do so.
  4. An animation that occurs as part of a preload phase or similar situation can be considered essential if interaction cannot occur during that phase for all users and if not indicating progress could confuse users or cause them to think that content was frozen or broken.

Compulsory

  • Allowing the content to be paused and restarted from where it was paused
  • Use script to scroll content, and providing a mechanism to pause it
  • Creatie content that blinks for less than 5 seconds
  • Use a technology to include blinking content that can be turned off via the user agent
  • Set animated gif images to stop blinking after n cycles (within 5 seconds)
  • Use scripts to control blinking and stop it in five seconds or less (Scripting)
  • Use a control in the Web page that stops moving, blinking, or auto-updating content
  • Provide a link, button, or other mechanism that reloads the page without any blinking content

Recommended

  • Provide a mechanism to stop all content that blinks within a Web page
  • Provide the user with a means to stop moving content even if it stops automatically within 5 seconds

Failures

  • including scrolling content where movement is not essential to the activity without also including a mechanism to pause and restart the content
  • using the blink element
  • using text-decoration:blink without a mechanism to stop it in less than five seconds
  • a script that causes a blink effect without a mechanism to stop the blinking at 5 seconds or les
  • an object or applet, such as Java or Flash, that has blinking content without a mechanism to pause the content that blinks for more than five seconds

2.2.3 No Timing Level AAA

Timing is not an essential part of the event or activity presented by the content, except for non-interactive synchronized media and real-time events.

Compulsory

  • Allow users to complete an activity without any time limit

2.2.4 Interruptions Level AAA

Interruptions can be postponed or suppressed by the user, except interruptions involving an emergency.

Compulsory

  • Provide a mechanism to postpone any updating of content
  • Provide a mechanism to request an update of the content instead of updating automatically
  • Use scripts to make nonessential alerts optional (Scripting)

Failures

  • Using meta redirect with a time limit
  • Using meta refresh with a time-out

2.2.5 Re-authenticating Level AAA

When an authenticated session expires, the user can continue the activity without loss of data after re-authenticating.

Compulsory

Provide options to continue without loss of data:

  • Saving data so that it can be used after a user re-authenticates; or
  • Encoding user data as hidden or encrypted data in a re-authorization page

Failures

  • Having a session time limit without a mechanism for saving user’s input and re-establishing that information upon re-authentication

More info


dont-hurry-up-anyone

Posted on April 27, 2019 Posted by Victoria Brooks

guideline-21-dont-forget-users-without-a-pointer

Guideline 2.1: Don’t forget users without a pointer


Make all functionality available from a keyboard

When a functionality can be achieved using only the keyboard, other input devices can be used. But, if you use only a mouse or a speech input, assistive technologies will find it difficult to operate it.

Obviously, you can use another input devices to complement the keyboard, and even you are encouraged to do it, but don’t forget that every feature must be operable by a keyboard input.

2.1.1 Keyboard Level A

All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user’s movement and not just the endpoints.

The exception is about the underlying function, not the input technique. For example, if using handwriting to enter text, the input technique (handwriting) requires path-dependent input but the underlying function (text input) does not.

This does not forbid and should not discourage providing mouse input or other input methods in addition to keyboard operation.

Compulsory

  • Ensure keyboard control by using HTML form controls and links
  • Provide keyboard-triggered event handlers using both keyboard and other device-specific functions, making actions keyboard accessible by using the onclick event of anchors and buttons, or using redundant keyboard and mouse event handlers

Recommended

  • Use XHTML role, state, and value attributes if repurposing static elements as interactive user interface components and add keyboard-accessible actions to static HTML elements
  • Provide keyboard shortcuts to important links and form controls
  • Use unique letter combinations to begin each item of a list
  • Choose the most abstract event handler
  • Use the onactivate event
  • Avoid use of common user-agent keyboard commands for other purposes

Failures

  • using only pointing-device-specific event handlers (including gesture) for a function
  • using script to remove focus when focus is received
  • using scripting events to emulate links in a way that is not programmatically determinable

2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap Level A

If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys or other standard exit methods, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away.

Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user’s ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion.

Compulsory

  • Ensure that users are not trapped in content

Failures

  • Combining multiple content formats in a way that traps users inside one format type

2.1.3 Keyboard (without exception) Level AAA

All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes.

Compulsory

This is the same as Success Criterion 2.1.1, but no exceptions are allowed. Just follow techniques for it. If there is a requirement for analog, time-dependent input, then it is not possible to meet this Criterion.

More info